Jharkhand, which means land of forests, separated from Bihar State in the year 2000. The state is rich in mining (40% of India's mineral resources), forest and biodiversity resources, and therefore some highly industrial cities like Ranchi or Dhanbad.
Data available shows that 39% of the population are living below the poverty line, poverty being more widespread in rural areas, and among tribal (28% of the total population of 33 million) and scheduled castes (12% of the population). Remote agrarian districts like Gumla showed poverty rates above 80% a few years ago [2004 data]. Human density varies drastically across the state, reaching 1,167 persons per square kilometre in Dhanbad district where the coal/steel industry provides employment.
Despite three quarters of the workforce being engaged in agriculture, investments in the farming sector have not followed the industrial boom. Farms have low productivity (foodgrain yields in 2010-11 were 35% less than the all-India average) and represent less than 20% of the state's GDP. About 95% of the cultivated area is used for foodgrain cultivation and the rest to grow cash crops.
The state has three main crop seasons: kharif (or aghani), rabi, and garma (summer). The major kharif crops are rice, millet and maize. The rabi crops are wheat, pulses, gram, and mustard. In the garma, farmers grow rice, maize, groundnuts and vegetables.